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一颗多汁的橙子:冬季的美好艳遇,给单调的餐桌填满了温暖的色彩

????丨多C多快乐丨-风物君语 -没有一颗多汁橙子的冬天最难将息冬季最难熬。口腹总被亏待。古代尤为明显,没有温室大棚的冬天,除了岭南,东北、汉中、江南均普遍缺乏新鲜蔬食与水果,想吃到一颗水灵灵的多汁鲜果,其难度不低于艳遇一场,实在是奢望。拿什么来拯救古人的冬天?柿子?时间太短;草莓?近代才传入中国;这漫长的几千年里,陪伴人们熬过冬天的唯有橙与橘。“纤手破新橙”,到底是个什么橙?挤橙汁也是很减压的活动了。图/网络全世界的柑橘都主要发源于亚洲,中国是其中最重要的产地之一,栽培历史悠久 ,种类繁多。《晏子春秋》中那句着名的“橘生淮南则为橘,生于淮北则为枳”,说的就是2000多年前中原就有橘与橙了。橘子、橙子和柚子的家族谱系极为混乱,其乱伦程度堪比奥林匹斯山上的众神,而在整个柑橘家族谱系中,和宙斯一样地位的就是橙子。橘子和柚子生下了橙子,此后橙子就开始以它为中心,陆续和它的“母亲”橘子、亲戚“香橼”杂交出了柠檬、橘橙等柑橘家族的下一代。酸味是柑橘家族的特征之一。图/视觉中国橙子家的亲戚众多,谱系混乱,古人也时常分不清,就像说“橘生淮南”时,晏子以为淮河南北的橘与枳是同一种水果,只是地域造成了差别。这误会传了几千年,其实橘和枳根本就是两种不同的水果。我国古书中谈到柑橘的名称与品种分类,最早说的是橘 、柚、 枳,其次是柑,再次是橙,但据现人考证,其实枳也应是橙子的一种,是“酸橙”,而后面出现的“橙”则是橙子的另一个品种“香橙”。橙汁,橙子最常见的食用方式。图/视觉中国但古人爱橙子,主要还是爱其代表的“美色”。首先是颜色,柑橘类一直是中国古代园林里重要的装点,冬季尤为凸显,苏轼写冬景时,诗中便咏“最是橙黄橘绿时 ”。其次是风情,如周邦彦在《少年游》中写:“并刀如水,吴盐胜雪,纤手破新橙。锦幄初温,兽烟不断,相对坐调笙。低声问向谁行宿,城上已三更。马滑霜浓,不如休去,直是少人行。”“纤手破新橙”,古人写橙子最艳情的定是这一句了。吃橙子,你是切块派还是手剥派?图/网络并刀,是并州所产的剪刀,以锋利着称,雪亮如泛水光。吴盐,其实就是江南吴越所产的盐,古人常以橙蘸盐以去其酸味。美人用剪刀给嫰黄的橙子破开一个小口,汁水迸溅,清新的橙香一并散发开来,连炉香都掩盖不了,还切成了小块,沾上雪盐,用纤手送到嘴边……每当看这一句时,我总忍不住腹诽,这画面看着美,实际吃起来可不怎么好,只能用盐来缓解酸涩的橙子能有多好吃?被酸得眉眼挤作一团时,就什么艳情都顾不上了。冰糖橙。图/视觉中国这般酸涩,我猜想,这里美人破的新橙,品种必是“酸橙”无疑了。后来的史料佐证了我的想法,南宋的韩彦直在担任永嘉太守(今浙江温州)一职时, 研究总结当地橘农的经验,写出了《橘录》一书,这是世界上最早的一本柑橘地方志。书中提到江南地区栽培的柑橘种类时,就提到了酸橙。糖橘皮。我们现在可以用糖来缓和橙或橘的苦涩,古人恐怕就没有这么幸运了。图/图虫·创意只可惜在制糖业并不发达的古代,糖是比盐还奢侈的东西,美人若能有一罐蜜糖,肯定比这酸咸交加的滋味更能吸引如意郎君了。不过,无论历史上的橙子是误会一时还是艳情一场,现在都烟消云散了。接下来必须想点具体的事情,比如,如果你获得了一颗美好的橙子,该怎样对待它才好?如何优雅地解剖一只橙子?这么切橙子就不太优雅。图/网络看到标题,你该不会以为我要具体写写解剖橙子的刀法?并不是,比娴熟掌握刀法更重要的当然是挑选一颗最好的橙子。橙子最重要的品质指标中,有一条是:可溶物含量。这其实就是说橙子里果肉与果皮、纤维的比重,可溶物含量越高,则橙子的果肉含量越高,越皮薄多汁,口感越“嫩”。挑选一颗可溶物含量最高,最皮薄多汁的橙子,不用费力地“解剖”半天,才是吃橙子最优雅的方式。一颗好的橙子,一定要皮薄多汁,酸甜适口。图/图虫·创意除了可溶物含量,衡量橙子品质的第二条重要指标就是酸甜比。明白了决定橙子品质的两大指标,要得到好吃的橙子,我们还得从橙子的生长环境找起。影响橙子生长最重要的因素是温度。春季日平均气温稳定在13摄氏度以上时,橙子才能开始萌发,夏季平均气温在23-29摄氏度时,最适宜橙子的生长。最关键是冬季,因为橙子极不耐冻,一旦冬季平均气温到零下3摄氏度以下,橙子树就极容易全部冻害,一棵都无法存活。这也是为什么到今天橙子都不能在北方种植的原因。光照也是决定橙子好吃与否的重要原因之一。图/视觉中国橙子多种在缓坡上。因为种在坡地上有保暖的功能。夜晚的时候冷空气会沿山坡下沉,致使山坡反而会比低洼的谷底温暖,可以避免极端低温的出现。所以,我国最好的橙子,就是生长在温暖湿润的南方丘陵地区,比如江西、湖北、四川盆地还有云南、广西。从空中俯瞰云南玉溪的褚橙庄园。图/视觉中国确定了产地,还有种植和品种的问题。就以脐橙举例,我国种植的脐橙主要以纽荷尔、朋娜、奈维林娜这三种为主,其中纽荷尔是种植最普遍的,不过在可溶性物和酸甜比这两个指标上,奈维林娜脐橙表现最好,纽荷尔排名第二。赣南脐橙。赣州是全国最大的橙子主产区,当地种植最广泛的就是纽荷尔脐橙。图/视觉中国此外还有种植年限的问题。要找到一颗好吃的橙子,首先你得先找到一棵足够老的橙子树。据研究数据显示,果树年龄越大,结出的果子个头反而会变小,但同时果皮会变薄,果肉的可溶物含量会明显提高,因为年轻的果树,纤维生长会更好。这和人类的生长规律是一样的,小的时候主要长骨骼,年纪大了就不得不长肉了。最好吃的橙子,就是中年发福的橙子。一大口吃掉冬天里最可贵的艳遇挑到一颗最好吃的橙子,接下来你就只需要思考两个问题了:怎么吃最好?要是舍不得吃怎么办?说起橙子的吃法,就一定得提蟹酿橙。江南人爱食蟹,蟹酿橙就时常出现在江南文人的宴席上,宋朝时称作“橙瓮”。蟹酿橙。图/截取自《风味人间》将成熟的橙子切掉顶部,作盖。挖去果肉,只留一点橙汁作底。然后将细细剔出的蟹黄、蟹肉填进去,再加一点儿醋和黄酒,盖上橙皮盖入锅蒸。我想,发明蟹酿橙的人一定是一个最贪婪的天才,非要在一道菜里同时吃掉两样秋冬的珍宝,要用橙子的天然果酸去中和蟹粉的水腥,又用蟹肉的咸鲜去凸显橙子的一丝清甜,再混以酒香,真是不堕江南的风流名声。除了蟹酿橙这种奢侈的大菜,日常的橙子多是用做一些小食小点。柑橘类的水果在中国一直是制作蜜饯的重要原料。图/图虫·创意比如《养小录》里就记载了一种“橙饼”:把橙子去核,然后连皮一起切成片、捣烂,绞成汁。再加入少许面粉一起搅成面团。将橙汁面团加白糖,放入蒸笼里蒸熟,再迅速拿出来放凉,冷却后切成片食用。制作并不复杂,自己就可在家实验,但总感觉最后会是橙子味切片馒头的味道。国外自然是喜欢用橙子做果酱,或是加入红酒和肉桂,煮一锅热橙子红酒汤,滋味也不错。嫌橙子吃不出花样?不如试试橙子炖蛋,够新奇吗?图/视觉中国感谢橙子,从古至今,从中到外,总算是给人类冬天单调的餐桌填满了温暖的色彩。不管怎么吃,遇到橙子,就算是冬天里最美好的一场艳遇啦。-END-你最爱的橙子是哪一颗?文丨图图编辑丨伊森设计丨Q年封图丨视觉中国参考资料【1】朱科焰, and 李洪珍. "典型亚热带丘陵山区脐橙种植气候区划研究." 江西农业学报 22.4(2010): 90-92.【2】李小孟. "柑橘及其近缘属植物的分子进化与栽培柑橘的起源研究." 重庆: 西南大学园艺园林学院 (2010).【3】鲍江峰, et al. 中国纽荷尔脐橙主要食味品质的系统聚类分析. Diss. 2004.【4】谢远玉, and 谢勇. "赣南脐橙种植气候区划." 江西气象科技 26.4 (2003): 36-38.【5】李坊贞, and 钟八莲. "赣南脐橙种质资源现状的分析." 赣南师范学院学报 31.6 (2010): 67-69.【6】杨培丽, et al. "纽荷尔脐橙果实生长与气象要素的相关性." 南方农业学报 46.5 (2015): 844-849.【7】王强, et al. "四个品种赣南脐橙果皮精油提取及挥发性成分分析." 食品工业科技 15 (2018): 041.【8】陈宾如. "我国古代文献上的酸橙." 中国柑桔 3 (1984): 010.

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tu wang luo bing dao, shi bing zhou suo chan de jian dao, yi feng li zhu cheng, xue liang ru fan shui guang. wu yan, qi shi jiu shi jiang nan wu yue suo chan de yan, gu ren chang yi cheng zhan yan yi qu qi suan wei. mei ren yong jian dao gei nen huang de cheng zi po kai yi ge xiao kou, zhi shui beng jian, qing xin de cheng xiang yi bing san fa kai lai, lian lu xiang dou yan gai bu liao, hai qie cheng le xiao kuai, zhan shang xue yan, yong qian shou song dao zui bian mei dang kan zhe yi ju shi, wo zong ren bu zhu fu fei, zhe hua mian kan zhe mei, shi ji chi qi lai ke bu zen me hao, zhi neng yong yan lai huan jie suan se de cheng zi neng you duo hao chi? bei suan de mei yan ji zuo yi tuan shi, jiu shen me yan qing dou gu bu shang le. bing tang cheng. tu shi jue zhong guo zhe ban suan se, wo cai xiang, zhe li mei ren po di xin cheng, pin zhong bi shi" suan cheng" wu yi le. hou lai de shi liao zuo zheng le wo de xiang fa, nan song de han yan zhi zai dan ren yong jia tai shou jin zhe jiang wen zhou yi zhi shi, yan jiu zong jie dang di ju nong de jing yan, xie chu le ju lu yi shu, zhe shi shi jie shang zui zao de yi ben gan ju di fang zhi. shu zhong ti dao jiang nan di qu zai pei de gan ju zhong lei shi, jiu ti dao le suan cheng. tang ju pi. wo men xian zai ke yi yong tang lai huan he cheng huo ju de ku se, gu ren kong pa jiu mei you zhe me xing yun le. tu tu chong chuang yi zhi ke xi zai zhi tang ye bing bu fa da de gu dai, tang shi bi yan hai she chi de dong xi, mei ren ruo neng you yi guan mi tang, ken ding bi zhe suan xian jiao jia de zi wei geng neng xi yin ru yi lang jun le. bu guo, wu lun li shi shang de cheng zi shi wu hui yi shi hai shi yan qing yi chang, xian zai dou yan xiao yun san le. jie xia lai bi xu xiang dian ju ti de shi qing, bi ru, ru guo ni huo de le yi ke mei hao de cheng zi, gai zen yang dui dai ta cai hao? ru he you ya di jie pou yi zhi cheng zi? zhe me qie cheng zi jiu bu tai you ya. tu wang luo kan dao biao ti, ni gai bu hui yi wei wo yao ju ti xie xie jie pou cheng zi de dao fa? bing bu shi, bi xian shu zhang wo dao fa geng zhong yao di dang ran shi tiao xuan yi ke zui hao de cheng zi. cheng zi zui zhong yao de pin zhi zhi biao zhong, you yi tiao shi: ke rong wu han liang. zhe qi shi jiu shi shuo cheng zi li guo rou yu guo pi xian wei de bi zhong, ke rong wu han liang yue gao, ze cheng zi de guo rou han liang yue gao, yue pi bao duo zhi, kou gan yue" nen". tiao xuan yi ke ke rong wu han liang zui gao, zui pi bao duo zhi de cheng zi, bu yong fei li di" jie pou" ban tian, cai shi chi cheng zi zui you ya de fang shi. yi ke hao de cheng zi, yi ding yao pi bao duo zhi, suan tian shi kou. tu tu chong chuang yi chu le ke rong wu han liang, heng liang cheng zi pin zhi di di er tiao zhong yao zhi biao jiu shi suan tian bi. ming bai le jue ding cheng zi pin zhi di liang da zhi biao, yao de dao hao chi de cheng zi, wo men hai de cong cheng zi de sheng zhang huan jing zhao qi. ying xiang cheng zi sheng zhang zui zhong yao de yin su shi wen du. chun ji ri ping jun qi wen wen ding zai 13 she shi du yi shang shi, cheng zi cai neng kai shi meng fa, xia ji ping jun qi wen zai 2329 she shi du shi, zui shi yi cheng zi de sheng zhang. zui guan jian shi dong ji, yin wei cheng zi ji bu nai dong, yi dan dong ji ping jun qi wen dao ling xia 3 she shi du yi xia, cheng zi shu jiu ji rong yi quan bu dong hai, yi ke dou wu fa cun huo. zhe ye shi wei shen me dao jin tian cheng zi dou bu neng zai bei fang zhong zhi de yuan yin. guang zhao ye shi jue ding cheng zi hao chi yu fou de zhong yao yuan yin zhi yi. tu shi jue zhong guo cheng zi duo zhong zai huan po shang. yin wei zhong zai po di shang you bao nuan de gong neng. ye wan de shi hou leng kong qi hui yan shan po xia chen, zhi shi shan po fan er hui bi di wa de gu di wen nuan, ke yi bi mian ji duan di wen de chu xian. suo yi, wo guo zui hao de cheng zi, jiu shi sheng zhang zai wen nuan shi run de nan fang qiu ling di qu, bi ru jiang xi hu bei si chuan pen di hai you yun nan guang xi. cong kong zhong fu kan yun nan yu xi de chu cheng zhuang yuan. tu shi jue zhong guo que ding le chan di, hai you zhong zhi he pin zhong de wen ti. jiu yi qi cheng ju li, wo guo zhong zhi de qi cheng zhu yao yi niu he er peng na nai wei lin na zhe san zhong wei zhu, qi zhong niu he er shi zhong zhi zui pu bian de, bu guo zai ke rong xing wu he suan tian bi zhe liang ge zhi biao shang, nai wei lin na qi cheng biao xian zui hao, niu he er pai ming di er. gan nan qi cheng. gan zhou shi quan guo zui da de cheng zi zhu chan qu, dang di zhong zhi zui guang fan de jiu shi niu he er qi cheng. tu shi jue zhong guo ci wai hai you zhong zhi nian xian de wen ti. yao zhao dao yi ke hao chi de cheng zi, shou xian ni de xian zhao dao yi ke zu gou lao de cheng zi shu. ju yan jiu shu ju xian shi, guo shu nian ling yue da, jie chu de guo zi ge tou fan er hui bian xiao, dan tong shi guo pi hui bian bao, guo rou de ke rong wu han liang hui ming xian ti gao, yin wei nian qing de guo shu, xian wei sheng zhang hui geng hao. zhe he ren lei de sheng zhang gui lv shi yi yang de, xiao de shi hou zhu yao chang gu ge, nian ji da le jiu bu de bu zhang rou le. zui hao chi de cheng zi, jiu shi zhong nian fa fu de cheng zi. yi da kou chi diao dong tian li zui ke gui de yan yu tiao dao yi ke zui hao chi de cheng zi, jie xia lai ni jiu zhi xu yao si kao liang ge wen ti le: zen me chi zui hao? yao shi she bu de chi zen me ban? shuo qi cheng zi de chi fa, jiu yi ding de ti xie niang cheng. jiang nan ren ai shi xie, xie niang cheng jiu shi chang chu xian zai jiang nan wen ren de yan xi shang, song chao shi cheng zuo" cheng weng". xie niang cheng. tu jie qu zi feng wei ren jian jiang cheng shu de cheng zi qie diao ding bu, zuo gai. wa qu guo rou, zhi liu yi dian cheng zhi zuo di. ran hou jiang xi xi ti chu de xie huang xie rou tian jin qu, zai jia yi dian er cu he huang jiu, gai shang cheng pi gai ru guo zheng. wo xiang, fa ming xie niang cheng de ren yi ding shi yi ge zui tan lan de tian cai, fei yao zai yi dao cai li tong shi chi diao liang yang qiu dong de zhen bao, yao yong cheng zi de tian ran guo suan qu zhong he xie fen de shui xing, you yong xie rou de xian xian qu tu xian cheng zi de yi si qing tian, zai hun yi jiu xiang, zhen shi bu duo jiang nan de feng liu ming sheng. chu le xie niang cheng zhe zhong she chi de da cai, ri chang de cheng zi duo shi yong zuo yi xie xiao shi xiao dian. gan ju lei de shui guo zai zhong guo yi zhi shi zhi zuo mi jian de zhong yao yuan liao. tu tu chong chuang yi bi ru yang xiao lu li jiu ji zai le yi zhong" cheng bing": ba cheng zi qu he, ran hou lian pi yi qi qie cheng pian dao lan, jiao cheng zhi. zai jia ru shao xu mian fen yi qi jiao cheng mian tuan. jiang cheng zhi mian tuan jia bai tang, fang ru zheng long li zheng shu, zai xun su na chu lai fang liang, leng que hou qie cheng pian shi yong. zhi zuo bing bu fu za, zi ji jiu ke zai jia shi yan, dan zong gan jue zui hou hui shi cheng zi wei qie pian man tou de wei dao. guo wai zi ran shi xi huan yong cheng zi zuo guo jiang, huo shi jia ru hong jiu he rou gui, zhu yi guo re cheng zi hong jiu tang, zi wei ye bu cuo. xian cheng zi chi bu chu hua yang? bu ru shi shi cheng zi dun dan, gou xin qi ma? tu shi jue zhong guo gan xie cheng zi, cong gu zhi jin, cong zhong dao wai, zong suan shi gei ren lei dong tian dan diao de can zhuo tian man le wen nuan de se cai. bu guan zen me chi, yu dao cheng zi, jiu suan shi dong tian li zui mei hao de yi chang yan yu la. END ni zui ai de cheng zi shi na yi ke? wen gun tu tu bian ji gun yi sen she ji gun Q nian feng tu gun shi jue zhong guo can kao zi liao 1 zhu ke yan, and li hong zhen. " dian xing ya re dai qiu ling shan qu qi cheng zhong zhi qi hou qu hua yan jiu." jiang xi nong ye xue bao 22. 4 2010: 9092. 2 li xiao meng. " gan ju ji qi jin yuan shu zhi wu de fen zi jin hua yu zai pei gan ju de qi yuan yan jiu." chong qing: xi nan da xue yuan yi yuan lin xue yuan 2010. 3 bao jiang feng, et al. zhong guo niu he er qi cheng zhu yao shi wei pin zhi di xi tong ju lei fen xi. Diss. 2004. 4 xie yuan yu, and xie yong. " gan nan qi cheng zhong zhi qi hou qu hua." jiang xi qi xiang ke ji 26. 4 2003: 3638. 5 li fang zhen, and zhong ba lian. " gan nan qi cheng zhong zhi zi yuan xian zhuang de fen xi." gan nan shi fan xue yuan xue bao 31. 6 2010: 6769. 6 yang pei li, et al. " niu he er qi cheng guo shi sheng zhang yu qi xiang yao su de xiang guan xing." nan fang nong ye xue bao 46. 5 2015: 844849. 7 wang qiang, et al. " si ge pin zhong gan nan qi cheng guo pi jing you ti qu ji hui fa xing cheng fen fen xi." shi pin gong ye ke ji 15 2018: 041. 8 chen bin ru. " wo guo gu dai wen xian shang de suan cheng." zhong guo gan ju 3 1984: 010.

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科技股主线回落 A股市场交易情绪降温

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  周二A股市场出现震荡中探底企稳的态势,主要是因为中国软件(600536)为代表的科技股主线出现回落走势,短线交易迅速降温。

  上证电话诈骗_侠大资讯网综指在盘中一度有回试3000点支撑的态势。不过,随着券商股、金融IT板块的强劲回抽,人气有所聚集,指数企稳。

  高估值是科技股主线的软肋

  经过近年来的产业演绎,越来越多的市场参与者开始认同科技创新、自主可控、产业升级是我国经济保持有质量发展的核心源泉动力。所以,无论是游资热钱还是主流资金,均愿意配置科技创新为核心的科技股主线,使得具有实质产业支撑的科技股在2018年下半年、2019年二季度市场人气低迷时,仍然能够保持较高的估值。

  随着近期科技股主线的再度崛起,这些个股的估值进一步回升,尤其是芯片为核心的半导体产业股、以自主可控为核心的软件股,市盈率数据基本上均是在80倍甚至百倍以上。

  面对如此高企的估值,虽然确定成长的趋势、广阔的产业空间等因素,可以支撑起当前的估值,至少存量资金尚不会出现大面积的套现、抛售,但是,对于增量资金来说,面对如此高企的市盈率数据,他们难以下手,使得科技股主线的头部股一旦出现长阳K线,就会有一定的、局部的短线热钱抛售行为,导致科技股主线的上涨趋势并不通畅。

  体现在盘面中,就是周一科技股大涨之后,在周二出现了局部的回落现象,尤其是那些估值较为离谱的前期强势股品种。

  A股市场强势格局不会改变

  由于科技股是当前A股市场的主线,是“方向性”资产,因此,一旦此类个股小幅调整,技术性指标有所休整之后,又会有短线热钱再度回补豆浆西施_侠大资讯网。也就是说,此类个股受高估值的压力,难以出现一气呵成的主升浪趋势。但是,拉长时间周期来葛天舒_侠大资讯网看,此类个股的K线图仍然是一个清晰的上升趋势,这尤其体现在芯片为代表的半导体头部股、金融科技股、云计算产业链的头部股等。

  因此,周二科技股主线的回落,虽然对人气有一定的抑制作用,但既不会改变A股市场的强势格局,也不会影响此类个股的中长期的K线上升趋势。换言之,经过近期休整之后,科技股主线的相关龙头品种的股价仍会有新高点的出现。

  对于A股市场主要指数的运行趋势来说,也是如此。一方面是因为科技股主线只是短线休整,而不是中短线趋势顶点的集体出货行为。另一方面是因为增量资金在看到高估值科技股难以下手的同时,迅速转向涨幅相对落后、估值相对适合的券商股、医药以及食品饮料为代表的大消费股,使得此类个股在周二表现不俗,这既是上证综指等主线指数在午市后有所企稳的原因,也是短线市场心态相对稳定的原因。具体表现就是荷兰足球甲级联赛_侠大资讯网,沪深两市成交仍然活跃,北上资金继续大手笔买入,沪深两市并未出现跌停板个股。相对应的是,达到10%涨幅限制的个股家数仍然有近60家。

  综上所述,周二的调整只是回试3000点的一次技术性调整,并不会改变A股市场的上行趋势,也不会改变科技股的中长期上行趋势。

  在操作中,建议市场参与者仍可以相对积极心态持股,同时,利用盘中震荡,积极调整仓位。一是在科技股主线,需要判断估值数据、产业趋势、业绩成长速度的预期等诸多因素的匹配情况。就目前来看,云计算、物联网、消费电子等领域头部股的匹配情况厦门萤火虫公园_侠大资讯网尚处于适宜状态,仍可积极跟踪。二是在大消费主线,对于医药(尤其是契合目前医药产业政策导向的创新药、创新药服务的相关产业链的头部股)、食品饮料等北上资金积极关注的品种也可跟踪。另外,反复活跃的券商股阳朔到龙脊梯田_侠大资讯网也是一个不错的加仓方向。

责任编辑:王帅

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